Chemokines: Proteins produced
by many human cells including endothelial cells, macrophages and
cells of the immune system.
Chemotherapy: Using drugs that
act by altering immune mechanisms and cell growth. These drugs are
used to treat lymphoma, leukemia and cancers.
Cirrhosis: Chronic liver disease
that interferes with normal liver function.
of the membrane of eyes and eyelids.
CT or CAT Scan (Computed Tomography
Scan): A method of imaging in which a computer is used to
reconstruct the anatomic features of an organ or tissue.
CXR: Chest x-ray.
Cytokines: Bioactive proteins
produced by many human cells especially endothelial cells and macrophages.
Diabetes: Also called sugar
diabetes characterized by increased glucose (sugar) level in the
Diagnosis: The cause of an illness.
Dyspnea: Shortness of breath.
Edema: Excessive fluid in tissues.
Embolization: Procedure by which
abnormal blood vessels are blocked.
Emphysema: Lung destruction
caused mainly by smoking.
Endothelial cells: Type of cells
that line blood vessels and the heart. They produce various cytokines.
Erythema nodosum: Red, tender
bumps on the legs in some patients with acute sarcoidosis.
ESR or Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate:
A measure of tissue inflammation. Normal rate: men, 1 to 13
mm/hr; woman, 1 to 20 mm/hr.
Facial palsy: Loss of function
of the seventh cranial nerve.
Etiology: Study of factors that
Fibrosis: Scar formation or
Fungi: Microbes with rigid cell
walls; includes yeast and mycelial forms.
Gallium Scan: Test performed
to find if sarcoidosis is active and spread to many organs.
Genetic: The inherited code
for human structure and function.
Genome: Complete sets of genes
of an organism.
Genotype: Genetic constitution
of an organism.
Granuloma: A round or oval collection
of inflammatory cells including lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils.
Helper T -cells: Class of T
lymphocytes that stimulate growth of specific type lymphocytes called
B cells, and cytotoxic T cells, and also activates macrophages.
Hematuria: Blood in urine.
Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of
Hilar adenopathy: Enlargements
of lymph glands of lungs.
Hodgkins Disease: Type of lymphoma
or cancer of lymph glands.
Host defenses: Mechanism by
which humans keep foreign antigens from harming them.
Humoral immunity: Immunoglobulin
(serum antibodies) dependent defense system.
Hypercalcemia: Increased calcium
Hypercalciuria: Increased calcium
in urine. Hypotension: Low blood pressure.
Hypersplenism: Enlarged spleen
that destroys red and white blood cells and platelets.
Hypertension: High blood pressure.
Inflammation: The process of
cytokine release and phagocyte activation resulting in redness,
swelling, pain and warmth at the site of injury.
Interferon: Class of proteins
produced by body to neutralize an endotoxin or virus attack.
Three main interferons are alpha, beta, and gamma.
Interleukins: Cytokines produced
by moncytes and macrophages.
Kveim-Siltzbach Test: Skin test
for diagnosing sarcoidosis.
Lesion: Destruction of tissue
resulting from inflammatory challenge.
Leukocyte: White blood cell.
Leucopenia: Low white cell count.
Lung biopsy: Procedure to remove
a tiny piece of lung in order to perform microscopic examination.
Lupus Pernio: Skin lesion that
affects the nose and face.
Lymph node: An oval structure
which is the site where lymphatic vessels come together.
Lymphocytes: T-cells (helper,
suppressor and cvtoxic) and B-cells.
Lymphoma: Cancer of lymph glands.
Cancerous cells or cancer. Marophage: Large tissue cell that can
swallow foreign particles. It develops from monocyte.
Mediastinoscopy: Procedure to
remove a lymph gland from the chest to make diagnosis of sarcoidosis,
lymphoma, and other diseases.
Monocyte: Cell in the blood
that differentiates into macrophage.
MRI or MR Imaging: Imaging method
using magnetic resonance.
Multiorgan (Multisystem) disease:
Disease that affects many or all parts of the body.
Necrosis: Death of tissue.
Nephritis: Inflammation of kidneys.
Nodule: A knot, swelling or
Palsy: Paralysis or weakness
of a nerve. Paralysis: Loss of strength or function.
Paresthesia: Abnormal sensations
such as tingling and prickling.
Phagocyte: Host cell that swallows
and destroys bacteria or foreign antigen.
Pleura: Membranous cavity that
surrounds the lungs.
Pleural effusion: The presence
of fluid in the membrane cavity that surrounds the lungs.
Pneumothorax: Air in the pleural
cavity. It may cause the lung to collapse.
Positive T8 skin test: Raised,
red tender area at the site of TB skin test antigen injection.
Prednisone: A commonly used
Sarcoid: Comes from the Greek
words: "Sarko" meaning flesh; the "oid" means
Sarcoidosis: Disease that causes
Sputum: Phlegm coughed up from
Splenomegaly: Enlargement of
Syndrome: A group of symptoms
and signs that characterize a specific disease.
Systemic: Affecting the whole
body rather than one organ or tissue.
T-cell: Thymus dependent lymphocyte.
THl and TH2 cells: Types of
Thrombocytopenia: Low platelet
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF):
Cytokine produced by monocytes and macrophages.
Uveitis: Inflammation of the